The Future is 5G.

Company Overview, Marketing & Sales

Dr. Gerald Mearini,

Dr. Gerald Mearini,

President & Founder, Teraphysics Corp

Dr. Gerald Mearini describes mmLink, the critically enabling high-speed wireless technology developed by Teraphysics, which will make the promise of 5G a reality.

Teraphysics DeviceTeraphysics Corporation develops powerful, efficient and compact devices that operate in the higher ranges of the millimeter-wave (mmw) and sub-millimeter terahertz (THz) frequency bands, the only portion of the electro-magnetic spectrum that has not been commercially exploited.

In1994 Dr. Gerald Mearini founded GENVAC Holdings, Teraphysics’ predecessor company, to develop advanced transmission and communications devices and systems. In 1999, Dr. Mearini and Louis Fisi formed a partnership which utilized Mr. Fisi’s 30 years of executive management experience in a public company environment to transform the organization from an R&D operation to a manufacturer of precision optical filters for military, aerospace and telecommunication applications.

In 2001, Dr. Mearini recruited Dr. Jim Dayton to the organization after he stepped down as Director of Technology from Boeing Electron Dynamic Devices. The combination of Dr. Dayton’s world renowned expertise in the development of wireless communication devices and Dr. Mearini’s knowledge of laboratory diamond led to the creation of the breakthrough helical devices which provide ample power to commercialize systems within the mmw and THz realms.

In 2006, Teraphysics Corporation was spun out from GENVAC to create a family of miniature high-power portable mmw and THz amplifiers utilizing modern microfabrication techniques that would be mass-produced in large volumes.

Wireless Markets

Global telecommunications is a 6 trillion dollar growth industry. Over the past several years the growth has been driven by wireless connectivity that has seriously strained available wireless capacity.

The International Wireless Industry Consortium (IWPC) [CT1] has projected a 5000 fold increase in wireless data traffic by 2030 as an additional 100 billion devices are placed into service over that period. This 5000 fold increase will be met through increases in spectral efficiency, governmental allocation of additional spectrum, and a massive small cell densification effort.

To address the projected small cell demand, Teraphysics Corporation will be introducing a miniaturized mmw radio technology that it will market under the brand mmLink™. This game changing technology, with data transmission rates 20-150 times greater than recently introduced solid-state millimeter wave radios, is ideally suited for venues such as stadiums and arenas, business and city centers, college campuses, Wi-Fi hotspots, etc. Reuse of frequency will become crucial as next-generation 5G mobile communications networks will achieve network speeds 100 times faster than currently available.

Another disruptive application of mmLink™ technology, fully complimentary to small cell densification, will be point-to-point backhaul between the fiber optic backbone and expanding microcells. This cost effective capability will be an attractive alternative to the installation of high cost and difficult to install fiber optic cable (“virtual fiber”).

A longer term application of mmLink™ technology will be its incorporation in stratospheric platforms such as low flying drones and balloons that are being developed to bring the Internet to billions lacking basic network infrastructure to connect online. The ultimate evolution of mmLink™ technology will be in accessing presently unallocated mmw frequencies of 140 GHz and 240 GHz and above, where an incredible amount of unused and currently available bandwidth exists, capable of delivering unprecedented data transmission rates between 60 gigabits per second (Gbps) and 150 Gbps. We are already seeing exciting breakthroughs such as the innovation announced by researchers from Ericsson and Chalmers University demonstration of a 140 GHz chipset small enough to be installed in a smart phone with a data rate of 40 Gbps. Fujitsu just announced successful demonstration of a 300 GHz chipset installed in a smart phone with data rates exceeding tens of Gbps to enable rapid downloads of 4K and 8K videos over short ranges from future video “kiosks”. The future implementation of these breakthroughs will lead to a new generation of smart devices which will consume significantly more bandwidth than modern smart phones. A new infrastructure will be required to deliver the necessary data and will need to incorporate our high bandwidth technology.

Total Addressable Wireless Market

The Total Addressable Wireless Market for the mmw technology, which encompasses telecommunications, healthcare and automotive applications, is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 43% from $4.8 billion to $10.6 billion by 2018.  Telecom will lead mmw growth, ascending from $116 million in 2013 to $1.1 billion in 2018, and then exploding to a projected $1.7 billion by 2020 (CAGR of 50%).  

Marketing Strategy

mmLink™ initial focus will be the introduction of next-generation systems in the E-band (71 to 86 GHz) for small cell deployment and wireless backhaul as a low cost and quick to install alternative to fiber connectivity.   

To increase industry awareness of mmLink’s™ breakthrough technology, the Company will construct a wireless single link backhaul “micro-network” demonstration system near its Cleveland, Ohio facility.  By propagating a signal over the entire 5 GHz of bandwidth in the 81 to 86 GHz frequency band, this system will demonstrate the feasibility of data transmission at a rate 20 times higher  than competitor low powered solid-state systems.  This link can be closed over a range of 5 miles (8km) with 99.995% availability. 

A major focus and goal of our strategy will be the inclusion of our unique mmw technology in the 5G standards that will be promulgated in accordance with the 2018-2019 roadmap established at the March 2015 Barcelona Mobile World Congress.

mmLink™ initial focus will be the introduction of next-generation systems in the E-band (71 to 86 GHz) for small cell deployment and wireless backhaul as a low cost and quick to install alternative to fiber connectivity.   

To increase industry awareness of mmLink’s™ breakthrough technology, the Company will construct a wireless single link backhaul “micro-network” demonstration system near its Cleveland, Ohio facility.  By propagating a signal over the entire 5 GHz of bandwidth in the 81 to 86 GHz frequency band, this system will demonstrate the feasibility of data transmission at a rate 20 times higher  than competitor low powered solid-state systems.  This link can be closed over a range of 5 miles (8km) with 99.995% availability. 

A major focus and goal of our strategy will be the inclusion of our unique mmw technology in the 5G standards that will be promulgated in accordance with the 2018-2019 roadmap established at the March 2015 Barcelona Mobile World Congress.

5G Roadmap

mmLink™ initial focus will be the introduction of next-generation systems in the E-band (71 to 86 GHz) for small cell deployment and wireless backhaul as a low cost and quick to install alternative to fiber connectivity.   

To increase industry awareness of mmLink’s™ breakthrough technology, the

Next Generation Mobile Networks Alliance (NGMN) has defined a 5G roadmap that shows an ambitious time-line with a launch of first commercial systems in 2020. At the same time it defines a reasonable period for all of the industry  to  carry  out  the  required  activities  (such  as  standardization,  testing,  trials)  ensuring availability of mature technology solutions for the operators and attractive services for the customers at launch date. The key milestones are:

  • Detailed requirements ready end of 2015

  • Initial system design in 2017

  • Trials start in 2018

  • Standards ready end of 2018

  • Commercial system ready in 2020

We believe there is ample time for us to participate in the implementation of this 5G strategy and influence standards development. 

Potential Market Partners

Next generation 5G will create entirely new markets and economic opportunities as mobile devices in industries ranging from healthcare to automotive to infrastructure come on stream.  Telecom will lead this revolution providing one-second downloads of massive video clips, super high-definition screens for broadcasting events, transmission of holograms, and mobile 3D images. Cisco predicts that by 2018, worldwide mobile data traffic will have increased 11 times from current levels, with much of that traffic driven by billions of devices talking to other devices wirelessly (The Internet of Things). To enhance 5G implementation of its technology, mmLink™ will seek market partnerships.

Sales Strategy

Initial sales opportunities for mmLink™ will be added-value enterprise applications until longer-term wireless carrier relationships are developed as 5G comes on stream.   Our initial enterprise thrust will provide solutions to major operational and business problems, e.g. high speed trading.  Carrier opportunities, with their vast and complex networks, will require considerable time and effort to assimilate our mmw technology.  In addition, the carrier sector is very large with high volumes and price sensitivity that lends itself to a strategic alliance with major carrier equipment suppliers.

Intellectual Property Strategy

With the development of its high frequency, broad bandwidth devices, mmLink™ has no effective competition in the upper end of the mmw band.  To protect and leverage that advantage, mmLink™ is developing an intellectual property strategy we believe will lead to domination of the high value and lucrative upper regions of the mmw band.

mmLink™ Commercialization PathsTeraphysics Device Test Chamber

There are several paths available for the commercialization and/or monetization
of our technology:

  • Direct sale of mmw systems to enterprise end users

  • Joint ventures with providers of customized added value wireless systems

  • Licensing and technology rights agreements with strategic partners

  • Sale of rights to a major supplier of equipment and systems to wireless carriers

  • The sale of the technology through partners, distributors and resellers

Technology

The mmw band is defined as the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum between 30 and 300 GHz.  It is named after its associated wavelengths of 10 to 1 mm.   Our focus is in the upper end of this band above 70 GHz for two reasons.  First, our innovative technology can be applied most favorably at these high frequencies, while conventional technology is inapplicable.  Second, there are very large bands of contiguous electromagnetic spectrum above 70 GHz that offer the possibility of unique commercial applications that go far beyond current communications services. The large bandwidths currently available (>70 GHz) at these high frequencies can support ultra-high data rates in the 10’s to 100’s of Gbps using the very broad bandwidth mmLink™ amplifier technology. 

Frequency Reuse and Backhaul

The greatest increase in expanding capacity will come from reusing the available spectrum multiple times. Rather than relying on a single cell phone tower to service a large area, telecommunications providers are beginning to resort to arrays of micro cells, each one servicing a small area without interfering with adjacent cells.  In the aggregate, the array of small cells, by reusing spectrum, provides broadband service to many more customers than a single tower covering the same geographic area and using the same spectrum.

Frequency reuse is illustrated in the image below.  The conventional cell phone architecture consists of a cell phone tower that illuminates a large area as represented by the central antenna and the red circle that surrounds it.  The large number of customers within the red circle must share the same available spectrum.  However, the carrier can provide significantly more bandwidth to its customers by reusing the available spectrum.  By subdividing the space into a large number of micro cells (small blue circle), each one illuminated by a short range transmitter that provides, say, only half the available spectrum, the carrier can provide significantly more bandwidth to each of the much smaller number of customers residing within the cell.

Frequency Reuse Diagram

To make a system like this work, there must be a large, flexible network that connects these micro cells to the backbone communications network.  This connection from the cell phone tower to the backbone network is called the backhaul (green arrow).  Traditionally, this has been accomplished using wired connections.   However, according to the IEEE 802.3 Ethernet Working Group, July 19, 2012, the bandwidth required for core networking is doubling every 18 months, which has necessitated the installation of thousands of miles of optical fiber to replace these wired connections.  Unfortunately, optical fiber may not always be the appropriate choice to link the micro cells to the telephone network. There are numerous locations where fiber is impractical economically, esthetically or geographically. mmLink™ proposes to make these connections with mmw wireless links.

The compact, mmw amplifier developed by mmLink™  promises to provide a practical alternative to optical fiber for high data rate backhaul operations by providing a highly linear wireless connection over the large segments of contiguous unallocated spectrum available in the upper end of the mmw band with 30 times more power than available from solid state amplifiers now in backhaul service.  This additional power, combined with uniform gain over the available wide bandwidth, supports the complex coding schemes necessary to provide high data rate digital transmission.  

Stratospheric Platforms

 

The Internet has been the vehicle that has driven the growth of commerce, revolutionized the access to information and enhanced the quality of life throughout the developed world.  Unfortunately, there remain billions of people who lack access to the basic telecommunications infrastructure needed to connect online.  A number of entrepreneurs see a relatively inexpensive way to provide this missing terrestrial telecommunications infrastructure by launching a flotilla of stratospheric platforms filled with radio transmitters that will operate well above the operating altitude of airline traffic and will serve effectively as very tall transmission towers.  Three of the most prominent companies that are publicly pursuing this opportunity are Google, Samsung and Facebook.  Each of these has a different plan for obtaining access to the stratosphere.  Google proposes to use a fleet of balloons (Project Loon).  Facebook would launch a constellation of very large drones.  Samsung actually proposes to operate above the stratosphere with an array of 540 low earth orbiting satellites.  While the type of platform is different in each case, all of these systems will require a very compact, lightweight, efficient, low power mmw amplifier.  Using the same design rules and employing the same proven fabrication technology that have successfully been applied to our higher power amplifiers, Teraphysics has simulated a subminiature amplifier that is only one cubic inch in volume.  There are presently no other known mmw solid state or vacuum electron devices that can meet the exacting standards of power, efficiency and compactness that these stratospheric platforms will require.      

Opportunities Above 100 GHz

The first opportunity for Teraphysics wireless backhaul will be in the newly established E-Band links of contiguous spectrum at 71 to 76 and 81 to 86 GHz where low power solid state radios are already in operation.  However, in the long term there is no other amplifier that can provide the power and gain flatness over the very wide bands of unallocated contiguous spectrum available above 100 GHz.  The upper end of the mmw band has wide bands of potentially useable spectrum, which are presently not allocated.  These high frequency bands offer the possibility of unique commercial applications that go far beyond current communications services.  The large bandwidths available at these high frequencies can support ultra-high data rates in the 10’s to 100’s of Gbps. In addition to the 10 GHz of contiguous spectrum in the E-Band from 71-76 GHz and 81-86 GHz recently allocated by the FCC  there are also 40 and 100 GHz of contiguous spectrum at center frequencies of about 140 and 240 GHz, respectively.  These center frequencies, which are illustrated below, are particularly attractive for ultra-high data rate commercial communications because they are located at atmospheric windows where the atmospheric attenuation is at a relative minimum.

Atmospheric Attenuation

These higher frequencies are also in the sweet spot for application of mmLink’s™ innovative fabrication technology.

The advantage of employing mmw technology is demonstrated below where the achievable data rates are compared for copper, existing wireless microwave, E-band with solid state (SS) technology, fiber, E-band with Teraphysics’ TWT technology, and 140 GHz and 240 GHz wireless links with Teraphysics’ TWT technology.  Note, wireless transmission using E-band and Teraphysics’ TWT amplifier can offer a 444 times increase in data rates over copper, and about a 57 times increase over existing microwave links. 140 and 240 GHz links would offer 1333 and 3333 times increases over copper, respectively.

Data Rate Comparison

The previous figure showed conservative estimates of achievable data rates using the mmLink™ TWT amplifier compared to the state of the art solid state amplifier (SSPA) over a range of 1.4 km (.87 miles).  The table below provides more detail on the link calculations.  Note, if higher order modulation schemes are employed at E-band, data rates will approach 23 Gbps.  These would increase further if even higher order modulation schemes are used such as 128- or 256-QAM, but that would be accomplished at the expense of shorter range.

 

Data Rate Comparison Chart

All of the links in the table above have been calculated for 99.999% (five nines) availability, which is a requirement for carrier class service.  To achieve this it is required to allow 29.9 dB per km of margin to allow for rain fade for operation in the northeastern US.

Note, data rates of 40 and 100 Gbps per fiber have been reported in laboratory environments, but not typically experienced in the field.  Wireless transmission at 240 GHz using mmLink’s™ TWT amplifier will exceed even the highest reported fiber laboratory demonstration.  Further, it is expensive to lay fiber in urban areas and is an environmentally complex undertaking.  Implementing a wireless link at E-band, 140 GHz or 240 GHz would be a much less costly alternative.  mmw transmission is also preferred over optical fiber for the transmission of timely financial data where the utmost speed is required.

In particular, mmw devices have considerable potential to revolutionize wireless, fixed point to point communications.  Several fixed point to point backhaul links are illustrated below.  The state of the art is a solid state amplifier shown in the following graphic with a data rate of about 1.1 Gbps at E-band.  If the current solid state amplifier is replaced with Teraphysics’ higher power amplifier, data rates could be increased by a factor of approximately 10 to 20.  If the frequency of the link was increased to 140 GHz with Teraphysics’ amplifier, data rates could be increased by about 50 times.  Increasing the frequency to 240 GHz, would result in more than a 100 times increase.

The bandwidth at 140 and 240 GHz has not been yet been regulated by the FCC.  Regulatory and licensing procedures might take at least two years.

 
Amplifier Rates Comparison

The mmLink™ Amplifier

What makes our mmw amplifier commercially attractive for these ultra-high data rate communications applications?  It is an amplifier capable of providing tens of watts of average output power that is compact, and highly linear with very flat gain over a broad range of frequencies to prevent distorting the complex, modulated signal necessary for ultra-high data rates.  By operating this amplifier well below saturation at 3 watts, which is the maximum allowed by the FCC, it becomes exceptionally linear.  Our main focus for mmw commercialization is on high data rate communications at E-band, 140 GHz and 240 GHz.

With its recent developments, mmLink™  is poised to mmLink Amplifierdominate the emerging mmw

mmw communications industry with a family of miniature helical traveling wave tube

amplifiers with unprecedented bandwidth and gain flatness. The first prototype mmw
helical TWT, helical TWT, a 94 GHz, 26 Watt amplifier with an efficiency of 53% funded by

NASA JPLand DARPA, is in test and is achieving predicted results.  This tube is capable of

operating from 73.5 to 96.5 GHz.  The TWT weighs 18.5 ounces and has the footprint of a

business card. Compared to conventional TWTs, this is a weight and size reduction of

approximately 90%.

This miniaturization is achieved by using three mmLink™ technology developments: the lithographically fabricated diamond supported helical slow wave circuit, the micromilling of the supporting circuit block, and the introduction of a novel periodic magnetic focusing structure.  These are illustrated in the graphic on the next page.  With the 94 GHz TWT, we have created a physical platform that can be applied to all devices that we develop in the future, regardless of frequency.

 

Recently, Teraphysics has explored the possibility of carrying its miniaturization technology even further to propose a subminiature version of the 94 GHz TWT for operation on high altitude platforms that have been proposed by various organizations to provide high speed wireless internet connections in areas that are currently underserved by terrestrial communications networks.  Utilizing the same design rules and fabrication technology that we have pioneered for the 94 GHz TWT we found that we could build an E-Band amplifier with a highly linear output of 2 Watts (8 Watts saturated) with 25% efficiency that would have a volume of only one cubic inch (17 cm3).

The Teraphysics devices have been designed from the start for volume manufacturability.  Typically, experimental devices are fabricated one at a time, but, even as prototypes, the Teraphysics TWTs are manufactured in batches.   Teraphysics has drawn upon the expertise of specialized contractors in diverse locations.  The principle contactors are Applied Diamond, Wilmington, DE; RTI, International, Durham, NC; Electron Energy Corporation, Landisville, PA; Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH; Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH; The EDM Department, Bartlett, IL; Spectra-Mat, Watsonville, CA; and Altair, Menlo Park, CA.  

The helical TWT is literally the only electron device capable of efficiently providing high power and high gain amplification over a multioctave bandwidth. It is commonly used terrestrially as an uplink transmitter to communications satellites and for radio frequency transmission in space, both from orbiting platforms and from deep space probes, as well as in a wide range of military systems for communications, radar and electronic countermeasures. 

 

Applications for mmw devices seem to be limited only by human inventiveness. Among the other applications identified are advanced cloud and precipitation radars, as well as high resolution synthetic aperture radars for applications such as dismount detection where humans must be identified in high clutter environments. In addition, mmw sensors are becoming standard on automobiles for collision avoidance.  The Department of Defense is also exploring the use of mm-waves to provide high data rate communications to enhance the situational awareness of small units engaged in combat.    

Although the first 94 GHz TWT has not yet been packaged for commercial sale, mmLink™ has been approached by several industry representatives to discuss potential teaming arrangements including Battelle, Boeing, SAIC, RAJANT, Lockheed Martin, Ball Aerospace, Sierra Nevada Corp., Honeywell, LGS Innovations, Cobham, Northrop Grumman, Trex, and TiaLinx.  The latter five corporations have collaborated with the Company on government proposals.     

Products

Products  Description of mmLink™ Product Line

mmLink™ has developed a class of mmw compact amplifiers with bandwidth that no other other mmw technology can match.  The combination of wide bandwidth and linear amplification at mmw frequencies offers the possibility of significant improvements in the data rate not achievable within the present state of the art.  The first of these amplifiers is a 25 W, 94 GHz helical TWT that is approximately one-tenth the size and weight of a conventional device.  The mechanical structure of this TWT has been designed to serve as a platform for future mmLink™ amplifiers that will share many of the same interchangeable components while operating at a variety of frequencies throughout the mmw band or even higher into the THz band.

High Power E Band Radio

mmLink™ will sourcelow cost solid state E Band radios from various manufacturers and integrate 71-76 GHz and 81-86 GHz high power vacuum electronic amplifiers into commercially mature solid state E Band radios to create high power E Band links for high value wireless backhaul communication platforms.

More immediate markets for this network include wireless backhaul in locations which do not easily accommodate a fiber optic system and require reliable service with very high data rates such as financial institutions, military operations, premier office buildings and office parks, sports arenas, business districts, government buildings and critical medical environments.

With the development of these high frequency, broad bandwidth devices, mmLink™ has no effective competition in the upper end of the mmw band.  The constant gain (the ratio of output power over input power) over very broad bandwidth that is characteristic of the mmLink™ amplifiers makes them ideally suitable for operation over the very large bands of contiguous unallocated mmw spectrum available.  In contrast, the lower portions of the spectrum are divided into multiple small allocations, each with strong constituencies.  No other amplifier can provide tens of watts of power with negligible gain variation over these broad bands of the electromagnetic spectrum.   

In summary, mmLink™ has reinvented the common helical slow wave circuit by utilizing modern computer modeling, by introducing CVD diamond that is grown in place, which is chemically etched and selectively metalized, and by adapting microfabrication and micromilling technologies.  The result is a novel helical slow wave circuit that is operable at frequencies ten times higher than previously possible and that retains the broad bandwidth capabilities that have made the helical TWT the amplifier of choice in the microwave band. 

Product Scalability

Although mmLink’s™ newly developed amplifiers are vacuum electronic devices that will have a relatively high initial cost; however, they will become price competitive as volumes increase similar to the history of all electronic devices.  In 2017 mmLink™ will concentrate its sales efforts on value added, high margin, and non-regulated enterprise opportunities for wireless that can absorb higher initial product costs.  That strategy will leave the larger, highly competitive, cost conscious regulated segment of the market available for us to license partner or sell our technology to the major equipment suppliers to the telecom industry.  This twofold strategy will allow mmLink™ to continue selling in value added enterprise markets, e.g., smart cities, where we expect considerable growth, e.g., government and safety forces, connectivity, high speed and secure private enterprise connectivity, educational institutions, etc.

 

Company & Technology History

Overview

Teraphysics has created a brand, mmLink™  to market the vacuum electronics technology that underlies its wireless business development plan.

Throughout Teraphysics’ history, mmw and sub-mmw (THz) devices have been developed concurrently.  The THz devices require much smaller physical features than the mmw devices, but both rely on the same design rules and are manufactured using the same fabrication processes.  Both mmw and THz devices are built on the same platform and share many of the same structural components.  The distinct differences that control the frequency of operation will be found in the precisely designed and fabricated internal structures.  The company recently achieved a major breakthrough in mmw technology, creating a suite of miniaturized amplifiers that can dramatically expand current wireless telephony with dramatically improved backhaul and connectivity.  Because of the rapidly growing need within the telecommunications industry for amplifiers that can operate in the upper end of the mmw band, Teraphysics created mmLink™, to facilitate its efforts to market our unique mmw amplifiers.  Specifically, the miniature helical traveling wave tube developed by Teraphysics is the only amplifier capable of producing significant power with negligible gain variation over the large segments of unallocated spectrum available in the upper end of the mmw band.  This patented capability presents an extraordinary opportunity for the expansion of commercial telecommunications.

Team
Dr. Gerald Mearini, PhD – CEO & Founder

Dr. Gerald Mearini pioneered chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond-based vacuum electronic devices with Jim Dayton at NASA Lewis. This discovery led to national recognition in the diamond community and the founding of General Vacuum in 1994, and ultimately the creation of Teraphysics Corporation. He has 19 patents and 30 publications in diamond and thin film technology and is an Adjunct Professor of Physics at Case Western Reserve University. Mearini started the company in 1994 with the vision of building diamond based vacuum electron devices for next generation wireless communications which has been realized.

Dr. Mearini received a Bachelor of Science degree from The Ohio State University, and a Master of Science and a Doctor of Philosophy degree in Experimental Physics from Case Western Reserve University.

Louis S. Fisi – CFO

Mr. Fisi leads the day-to-day management decisions for Teraphysics and implements the Company’s strategic long and short term plans.  Previously, he was a founding member of Advanced Lighting Technologies, Inc. (ADLT) and served as its CFO where he successfully led the Company to an IPO and raised over $275 million.

Mr. Fisi has a Bachelor of Science in Business Administration from the University of Akron and an Executive Master of Business Administration from the University of Indiana.

Competitive Technologies

Overview

There are currently no known mmw power amplifiers, either in development or commercially available, which are capable of operating over all of the mmw bands of interest (71-76 GHz, 81-86 GHz, 120-160 GHz, and 190-290 GHz), and able to produce substantial output power, gain flatness, and bandwidth other than the mmLink™  mmw amplifiers.  These licensed mmw devices are scaled versions of Teraphysics’ miniaturized vacuum electron helical devices.

mmLink’s™ mmw devices follow the same design concepts as the Teraphysics’ THz devices.  The problems inherent in alternative approaches towards creating practical mmw power for ultrahigh data rate communications are intractable, since to management’s knowledge, the only slow-wave circuit able to operate over the needed bandwidth of about 50% is the helix slow-wave circuit.

Although the mmw regime technically spans from 30-300 GHz, when we say mmw in the following pages, we refer to frequencies above 70 GHz where large contiguous bandwidth is available. 

Problems with Commercialization of Other Millimeter-Wave Amplifier Methods

In managements’ discussions with mmw researchers, applications developers, and potential system customers, the unanimous conclusion is that a compact, sufficiently powerful, wideband, linear, mmw amplifier capable of covering all of the mmw bands of interest does not currently exist.  Several approaches towards the development of mmw power amplifiers are currently being utilized by organizations attempting to develop commercially viable solutions.  The following charts illustrate the most widely discussed amplifiers of mmw power, compared to the Teraphysics devices, with a highlight towards the intractable problems faced by these alternative approaches.  For a power amplifier to be commercially viable, the device must have the following attributes.

  • Capability to scale in frequency and bandwidth to operate over the following frequencies (assumes multiple devices): 

       –      A: E-band (71-76 GHz, 81-86 GHz) 
       –      B: 120-160 GHz 
       –      C: 190-290 GHz

  • Power (10’s W) to provide meaningful output power with enough input power backoff to support high order modulation schemes.  (Backoff is a common practice for increasing linearity, by reducing the RF input power so that the amplifier does not operate at saturation.)

  • Compact Size (<2 lbs., < 5 inches3)

  • Linearity to enable large data rates  (10’s Gbps)

  • Minimal gain variation (< 1 dB) 

The table focuses on technology producing mmw power between approximately 70 and 300 GHz since frequencies below that do not have the available FCC bandwidth allocations to enable ultra-high data rates.

Millimeter-Wave Amplifiers

Millimeter Wave Amplifiers

Intellectual Property

US patents have been granted to the Company for its helical structured vacuum electron sources and amplifiers, and the associated nanomaterials manufacturing process.  International patents have been applied for in Canada, China, Europe, India, Japan and Korea.  (More detailed information on the Company’s patents will be made available on request.)

Teraphysics’ vacuum electronic device technology platform is common to both THz and mmw frequencies, with the differences being basically a function of device size, with lower frequency mmw being a larger device in size then required for higher frequency THz devices. 

Teraphysics Intellectual Property

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